Saturday, June 15, 2019

The Moor's Account by Laila Lalami

The 1527 Spanish expedition headed by Panfilo de Navaez was intended to explore and colonize the southeastern portion of North America that now is part of the United States and Mexico.  It did neither, at least not in any way useful to the Spanish empire.  About six hundred people landed in Florida, but only four men, three Spaniards and a black North African slave,  survived an eight year treck across the continent.  One of the Castilians, Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, wrote an account of the men's ill-fated journey which is the only version of what happened.  It is an account of virtuous Europeans (virtuous with the exception of the incompetent de Navez, who seems, according to de Vaca, to have doomed the whole enterprise by ignoring de Vaca's wise advice) set upon by vicious and inhuman Indians who exploited the white men for their metal implements and their unpaid labor.

De Vaca's self-serving account is a perfect set up for the novelist Lalami to tell the story from a different point of view, that of the Moor slave, whom she calls Msutafa ibn Muhammad ibn Abdussalam al-Zamori.  That the slave can produce a longer moniker than even the proud Spaniards should alert the reader that this version of events will be very different.

It is, and in a surprising way.  Msutafa is a merchant who becomes improvised by war and famine and sells himself into slavery to feed his widowed mother and his brothers.  He knows what he's letting himself in for because he, too, in his more prosperous days dealt in slaves, rejoicing at their profitability.  He bears up well enough with the indignity and hopelessness of his situation until, with the collapse of the expedition on a storm ridden gulf coast, the survivors find themselves at the mercy of the indigenous peoples who first treat them with some kindness, then make them into virtual slaves.  Now the Castilians and the Moor become comrades, sharing the misfortunes of their situation together.  As the layers of European and Muslim civilization are striped away they discover that indeed they are brothers under the skin. Near the end of their strange journey they again encounter their own kind on the Pacific coast.  Msutafa dares hope that his one time master will, once they are returned to Spain, honor his promise to free him.

Lalami portrays the plasticity of the human character.  Faced with the demands and contradictions of an  alien culture and environment, human beings are capable of surprising adaptations. The proud Spaniards survive only because they can put pride aside and allow themselves to be used as beasts of burden, to be whipped, even killed by their Indian masters.  The Moor is able to combine his knowledge of healing from another continent with the indigenous methods and herbs and become something of a 16th century Park Avenue doctor.  In the end the four survivors are able to put their newfound lives behind them and pick up their old ways and roles with little effort.

What is constant throughout is the will to survive, no matter what privations, indignities, and horrors are forced on them.  And they retain what even slavery cannot take away:  hope.    

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Crash Course


When I came across Julie Whipple's Crash Course in the new book section of my local library it struck me with a double impact.  First, I'm a retired air traffic controller, so this type of book reels me in as surely as a Siren's song.  Second, a headline pictured on one of the first pages under a photo of the torn and crumpled cabin of a jetliner didn't really need boldface to get my attention:  Friday, December 29, 1978;  United DC-8 Crashes at E. Burnside, 157th; 10 Killed, 175 SurviveFor the last eight-and-a-half years I've lived four blocks from that location.  I had no idea.  Conversations with neighbors, many of whom lived in the neighborhood for over forty years had never veered off into reminisces over what must have been an overwhelming and terrifying experience.  (Believe me, as a controller in Vietnam I witnessed large aircraft crashing a few hundred feet from me.  It is terrifying and overwhelming.  You never forget the sound.  You never forget the bodies lined up neatly to the side--it's real.)  

Whipple, a journalist with extensive reportorial experience, is well equipped to write this type of investigative book.  She has the added advantage of being the daughter of Stewart M. Whipple, an attorney who represented Elizabeth Andor, a three year old child who survived the crash with extensive life-changing injuries, and also lost her parents and two sisters.  The elder Whipple provided his daughter with seven boxes of notes from the trials that resulted.

The first four of the standard five W's of reporting, Who, What, When, and Where, are easily presented in this type of book.  The last W, Why, is the hard one.  It turns the book into something that shares features with the True Crime genre.  This is introduced on the cover with the subtitle:  Accidents Don't Just Happen.  Not in the United States anyway.  Federal Law dictates that all aspects of aviation be accident free.  Properly designed, properly maintained and operated, aircraft will not crash.  That's the law passed to reassure commercial aviation passengers that they are perfectly safe.  So, if an airliner crashes, it is because someone didn't do his job right.  In American aviation there are no accidents.

United Flight 173 crashed on a cold winter evening in 1978 because somebody messed up.  The question is: who?  United Airlines, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the National Transportation Safety Board had no doubts.  Captain Malburn McBroom was the pilot in command that night and had total responsibility for the safe operation of the huge airliner.  He crash landed the big jet some 12 airmiles from the airport when the fuel tanks ran dry.  A pilot's first responsibility is to make sure he has enough fuel to land his flight at the intended destination.  McBroom didn't do that and it was his fault.  End of investigation.

Others, including the family of little Elizabeth Andor, weren't so sure.  McBroom had aborted his approach to Portland International that night when he put down his main gear and, instead of the reassuring "thunk" of the gear locking in place, was jolted by two shocks from the right main gear, intense enough to throw the massive plane from side to side.  He had good reason to believe the first shock was caused by a part failing in the piston that extended and retracted the heavy gear assembly.  But what was the second?  He suspected that the gear, unrestrained by the normal resistance of the hydraulic system, had free-fallen past the structural stops that kept it aligned properly for landing.  That might mean that the gear on the right side could be splayed, which would cause the aircraft to spin uncontrollably to the right on landing.  McBroom had opted to enter a holding pattern south of the airport while he and the flight crew "worked" the problem with the assistance of United Airline maintenance personnel on radiotelephone from San Francisco.  While working the problem the crew became distracted from monitoring the fuel situation and by the time their attention was brought back the plane lacked fuel to make it to PDX.  

Site of United Flight 173 crash today.  Two unoccupied
 homes were flattened.  One in the still vacant lot in the
foreground and one across Burnside street in the area now
occupied by apartments.  No one died on the ground.   

To United and the regulatory authorities that was the whole story.  But, wait a minute.  What if the part hadn't failed in the first place?  Then the approach would have continued normally and all 185 on board would have landed on time in Portland and proceeded with their plans for celebrating the new year.  And what if the part failure was not a unique event, but something well know to be a problem with the DC-8?  And what if that specific DC-8 was known to have a defective part and United had knowingly chosen to defer replacing that part, not once, but twice?  What then?  

Whipple's well written book journals the story of those what-ifs.  It presents a landmark lawsuit and the human lives forever changed by an avoidable accident.   




Wednesday, May 8, 2019

A Writer's Blog Is Back

It has been nearly five years since I've composed a post for A Writer's Blog.  It's not that I've lost interest in either my writing or the books I wrote my little reviews about.  I have continued to write and I've continued to read.  So, why stop blogging?  (It makes me smile that the spelling checker doesn't underline "blogging."  My trusty Webster's New World College Dictionary doesn't even have an entry for blogging, yet it claimed, when published in 1999, that it was "defining the English Language for the 21st Century").

Part of the reason was that I was indeed writing a new novel, my third.  Much of the time and energy I would have given to blogging was directed to what turned out to be a long and complex project.  Longer and more complex than I'd imagined.  That's finished now and query letters for A Dangerous Heritage, my Civil War novel, are being emailed to agents in three countries.  (The whole process of seeking an agent has changed a lot in the fifteen years since I had one.  I'm sure this will be the subject of future posts.)   Partly, the social media landscape has changed so rapidly with the advent of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and a host of other ways to communicate, that blogging seems a relic of another time.  A Gentler, slower, and more generous time.

Blogging didn't disappear, however.  And, more importantly, interest in blogs didn't disappear, either.  When, after years of never having checked my Blogger Dashboard, I finally checked in, I was surprised to find that from August 2012 to today, 11,958 pageviews of my blog were recorded.  Unsurprisingly, the most popular posts where the ones Google Searches for "Amelia Earhart" led to (635).  The runner up, surprising until you think of our time's obsession with racial politics, was my review of A Black Prisoner Of War, by James A. Daly and Lee Bergman.  The fact that 3 people viewed my blog yesterday and 169 people last month, tells me that my work (and don't kid yourself, it is work) isn't entirely for naught.

So, my blog is back.  To celebrate that I'll post this and reduce the price of my two eBooks shown for sale to the right to 99 cents each.